Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2005 Aug;(437):209-18.
Papagelopoulos PJ, Savvidou OD, Mavrogenis AF, Galanis EC, Shaughnessy WJ, Unni KK, Sim FH.
Four children and six adults required en bloc resection of the lateral malleolus for malignant tumors. There were four osteosarcomas, three chondrosarcomas, two Ewing's sarcomas, and one adamantinoma. Surgical margins were wide in seven patients, marginal in two, and intralesional in one. A primary ankle arthrodesis was done in four adults and bracing without any reconstruction was done in four children and two adults. During a mean followup of 14.5 years (range, 3-30 years), there were two local recurrences (two of 10 patients) after a marginal excision and an intralesional excision. One patient had reoperation for a skip osteosarcoma lesion in the proximal fibula. Other complications included chronic osteomyelitis, a lateral talus subluxation and cavovarus deformity, and recurrent ankle instability and degenerative changes of the ankle. At the latest followup, all 10 patients showed no evidence of disease. Five patients who had primary or late ankle arthrodesis had a Musculoskeletal Tumor Society and International Society of Limb Salvage functional score of 28 points (92%), and two adolescents who had postoperative bracing alone had a functional score of 24 points (80%). The three remaining patients had a salvage amputation.