Foot malignancies: a multidisciplinary approach.

Foot Ankle Clin. 2003 Dec;8(4):751-63.
Papagelopoulos PJ, Mavrogenis AF, Badekas A, Sim FH.
Malignant osseous and soft tissue tumors of the foot are rare and should be considered in patients who have foot-related symptoms. Most sarcomas affect patients who are older than 55 years; however, many young patients who are otherwise healthy, may present with malignant foot and ankle lesions. In addition to benign and malignant neoplasms, pseudotumorous conditions mimic neoplastic lesions and should be differentiated before any treatment is undertaken. Invasiveness is a characteristic of sarcomas. The foot is a terminal anatomic structure, with closed and tight compartments and well-vascularized tissues, that predispose it to hematogenous and lymphatic metastases. Patients who have a malignant foot tumor should be referred to an orthopedic oncologist for further evaluation and treatment. The goals of treatment include local tumor control, restoration of function and stability during standing and walking, long-term survival, and improved quality of life. In most cases, wide surgical margins require a ray, Syme, midtarsal, or below-the-knee amputation. Recent advances in chemotherapy and radiotherapy have allowed limb salvage procedures with wide tumor resections. Because overall survival is greatly improved in these patients, the reconstruction of skeletal defects needs to be more functional and durable. After tumor resection, reconstruction of the skeletal and soft tissue defects is possible by using bone allografts or vascularized autografts, arthrodesis, and free vascularized musculocutaneous flaps.